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Change is one of the basic features of the universe. In Western philosophy, change has often been conceived in terms of becoming, which, in turn, has been juxtaposed to being. In many cases, processes of change or becoming have been characterized as processes of either development or evolution. In the 21st century, processes of development and evolution are broadly and fundamentally understood as processes of self-organization, or the emergence and maintenance of order out of chaos and against entropy. From this perspective, the universe is conceived of as a dynamic self-organizing system that changes, develops, and evolves within the context of the arrow of time or the natural overall tendency of the universe to go from higher levels of organization and energy to lower ...

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