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Confucianism is an ethical system based on the teachings of Confucius (551–479 BCE). These teachings, presented mainly in The Analects, have been further developed by many generations of Chinese philosophers, and the resulting ethical system has deeply shaped the cultures of China, Japan, Korea, and other East Asian countries. Confucius lived during the turbulent “axial age” in ancient China, when warring states fought violently for dominance, leading scholars at the time to seek the means for securing peace and harmony in society, along with individual contentment and well-being. In modern times, the countries of East Asia have found in Confucian values an ethic for a market-based business economy, and many distinctive business practices in these countries can be explained by a common Confucian cultural heritage.

Confucian ...

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