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Eyewitnesses to a crime or other incident often recall that event dozens of times while waiting for a trial that may take place months or even years later. These recall episodes are often in response to questioning by arresting officers, police detectives, district attorneys, friends, other witnesses, private investigators, and defense attorneys, among others. Even in the absence of direct questioning, witnesses often recall what they have seen on their own, sometimes to prepare themselves for testimony at trial and other times simply because the event was frightening, disturbing, or otherwise vivid. The effects of such repeated recall on eyewitness accuracy and confidence are complex. Although repeated recall can occasionally yield new information, it may also cause memory distortions due to postevent misinformation effects, imagination ...

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