Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI)

The PPI is a widely used self-report measure designed to detect the principal personality traits of psychopathy. Revised in 2005 as the Psychopathic Personality Inventory–Revised (PPI–R), it consists of 154 items arrayed in a 4-point Likert-type format. The PPI–R, like the original PPI, yields a Total score reflecting global psychopathy as well as eight-factor analytically derived content scales reflecting specific facets of psychopathy: Machiavellian Egocentricity, Rebellious Nonconformity (formerly Impulsive Noncomformity), Blame Externalization (formerly Alienation), Carefree Nonplanfulness, Social Influence (formerly Social Potency), Fearlessness, Stress Immunity, and Coldheartedness. The PPI–R also contains three validity scales designed to detect aberrant response styles that are potentially problematic among psychopathic individuals: Virtuous Responding (formerly Unlikely Virtues), Deviant Responding, and Inconsistent Responding (formerly Variable Response Inconsistency).

Construction of the PPI and ...

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