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Introduction

Applicants for higher education, jobs, etc. are usually required to take aptitude tests for selection and sometimes for placement. Applicants strive for high scores to increase their chances in the selection or placement process. To achieve such scores, examinees may utilize various forms of coaching. Coaching was defined by Cole (1982) as a ‘wide variety of test preparation activities undertaken by individuals in an attempt to improve test scores’. These may range from solving some items to extensive courses.

Today most testing institutions offer free (or inexpensive) explanations of test instructions, a multitude of practice items and tests, and test-taking strategies. These provide fundamental coaching to examinees and facilitate practice with ‘official material’.

After a brief historical review, we shall describe coaching – its components, the various ...

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