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Introduction

During the decades the interest in cross-cultural studies has increased. These studies involve groups without a common language. The traditional approach of making close (‘literal’) translations of (usually Western) source instruments for all target languages, though still widely used, has been challenged. It is appreciated that an exclusive focus on the linguistic aspects of a translation does not address the question, to what extent the item contents are adequate in all target languages. Similarly, it is increasingly appreciated that in order to translate psychological instruments linguistic competence is necessary though insufficient (Geisinger, 1994; Hambleton, Merenda & Spielberger, 2001). Also needed are knowledge of the target cultures and expertise in designing psychological instruments. Modern translation projects pay much attention to the question of how cultural, ...

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