Memory enters into nearly all cognition and memory dysfunction is one of the most common sequelae of neurological disorders. It seems therefore highly implausible to consider a unitary research or assessment on memory. Thirty years ago, Tulving's (1972) contribution to the organization of memory consisted of dividing long-term memory in terms of content, i.e. episodic and semantic memory. Episodic memory refers to memory for specific events within a spatial and temporal context. Semantic memory, on the contrary, holds information that is independent of the context in which that information was learned. More recently, Tulving's view of memory as multiple systems (1995) comprises five types of memory: procedural memory, perceptual representation system, semantic memory, primary memory and episodic memory. A great deal of research indicates ...

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