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By a simple definition, memory is the capability of animals to acquire, retain, and make use of knowledge and skills. Since the early 1980s, the way that cognitive scientists think about memory has dramatically changed. Today, memory is more often viewed not as a unitary entity but as comprising different components or systems. Neurocognitive research has indicated that it is more appropriate to consider the human memory as a collection of multiple but closely interacting systems than as a single and indivisible complex entity (e.g. Tulving, 1985a; Squire, 1992; see also Schacter & Tulving, 1994a, for current perspectives). Different memory systems differ from one another in terms of the nature of representations they handle, the rules of their operations, and their neural substrates (e.g. Tulving, ...

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