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Intelligence: Models of Structure and Theories of Development

Intelligence measurement and theories of intelligence are represented in this encyclopedia by several entries. This corresponds to the importance and relevance that cognition, cognitive abilities, and intelligence have in the Western societies and consequently in psychological research since its beginning some 100 years ago. There exist hundreds of definitions of intelligence and cognitive abilities in philosophy and psychology, and in every day life. Most of them include a core of key concepts such as comprehension, judgement, reasonable thinking, but also successful adaptation to natural, cultural, societal circumstances and challenges in an efficient and practical manner, and finally productive and creative mental energy. As Schaie (1996) argued, in the scientific study of intelligence there is a hierarchy leading from ...

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