Diversity may be conceptualized as variance in human characteristics that leads people to perceive differences relative to the self. Cultural diversity refers to variation in social groups within human societies in a given context at a given time. For example, variation in the number of different nationalities, racial and ethnic groups, or religious affiliations that are reflected in a specific population (e.g., residents of the southern United States) may wax or wane over time as a result of migration patterns. Changes in cultural diversity over time influence the frequency and nature of intergroup contact, with important implications for psychological phenomena. Hence, the study of diversity—particularly social group diversity—has emerged across a number of research traditions within psychology, including cultural psychology, social psychology, industrial/organizational psychology, ...

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