Crowding can be characterized as the experience of stress due to exposure to too many people in too little space. One constant since the great plagues has been a continual increase in population. The urbanization of civilization has exacerbated dense population growth, and the population of our planet is now close to 7 billion, increasing at a rate of 1% a year. These trends have contributed to conditions of crowding in some countries and cities. Researchers have explored the many factors that influence crowding and how the harmful effects of this experience can be reduced.

Studies have examined the various spatial and social factors that influence the experience of crowding. Any time groups come together, they vary in size and spatial arrangement. These two factors can ...

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