Racism represents an organized system of privilege and bias that disadvantages a set of people on the basis of their group membership. Racism is enforced by the intentional or unintentional actions of individuals and the operation of institutional or societal standards that, in concert, produce disparities, by race or by social categories such as national origin, ethnicity, religion, and cultural beliefs or ideologies, that are racialized and assumed to reflect biological differences. There are two defining elements of racism. The first element is the culturally shared belief that groups have distinguishing race-based characteristics that are common to their members. The second factor is that the perceived inherent racial characteristics of another group are held to be inferior or that those of one's own group are ...

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