In everyday language, a “black sheep” is a group member who is undesirable and stands out from the group in such a way as to attract disapproval from the rest of the group. In social psychology, the term black sheep effect, coined by José Marques, refers to a more specific phenomenon in which someone who is socially undesirable (unlikable) is liked less if he or she is a member of your group (an ingroup member) than if he or she is a member of a group to which you do not belong (an outgroup member). Conversely, someone who is socially desirable (likable) is liked more if he or she is a member of your ingroup rather than a member of an outgroup. Put another way, ...

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