Sexism consists of attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and practices at the individual, institutional, and societal level that involve negative evaluations of people or promote unequal treatment based on gender. Modern sexism, which represents current manifestations of sexism, includes both older, overt forms of sexism and more subtle and less often recognized expressions. By definition, sexism can be directed against both women and men. However, most psychological research focuses on antifemale sexism.

Although gender relations have, as a consequence of cultural, political, and social movements, shifted away from considerable inequality to emerging egalitarianism, particularly in economically wealthier countries, egalitarian norms have not resulted in full gender equality. On a societal level, this is reflected, for instance, by the frequency of interpersonal violence against women, the ongoing genderspecific ...

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