Inclusion refers to being accepted as part of a group, organization, or two-person relationship, whereas exclusion refers to being rejected. Inclusion tends to have positive effects on behaviors, cognitive activity, physical health, and emotions, whereas exclusion tends to have negative effects. Making excluded people feel that they are able to gain inclusion reduces the negative effects of exclusion. This entry discusses the importance of inclusion and exclusion for understanding group processes, reviews the types of inclusion and exclusion people experience inside and outside the scientific laboratory, and discusses the positive and negative consequences of inclusion and exclusion.

Belonging to Groups as a Fundamental Human Need

People depend on others for much of their well-being. Most humans do not grow the food they eat, make the clothes they ...

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