JACQUES DUCLOS, the leader of the French Communist Party (PCF) during much of the 20th century, symbolized the struggles of the French people. Born in 1896, Duclos joined the Marxist French Communist Party in the 1920s. He favored an anarcho-syndicalist worldview of the role of social revolution. Duclos believed that the PCF symbolized an expression of working-class grievances and frustrations. From 1926 to 1932, Duclos served as a member of the Chamber of Duties as well as on the Party's Central Committee.

During the 1920s, the French government curtailed many civil liberties. There were frequent arrests, fines, and the seizure of the party's daily newspaper. Duclos recounted how he played a cat-and-mouse game with authorities to evade arrest. In 1927, the government arrested Duclos as a ...

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