WILLIAM SHOCKLEY WON the Nobel Prize in physics in 1956. His research on transistor circuits remains instrumental in modern technological advances. During the later years of his life, however, Shockley became an advocate of eugenics, the study of the relationship between race and intelligence, which tarnished his scientific legacy.

Shockley was born in London, England, to American parents. At age three, the Shockley family returned to their home in California, where Shockley was home-schooled until he was eight years old. Shockley attended high school at the Palo Alto Military Academy before transferring to the Los Angeles Coaching School to study physics. Later, Shockley transferred to Hollywood High, where he graduated in 1927.

In the fall of 1927, he enrolled at the University of California at Los ...

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