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PRIOR TO WORLD WAR II, only three countries in Africa could claim independence: Liberia, Egypt, and Ethiopia. By the second half of the 20th century, the process of decolonization took hold on the continent as former European colonies gained independence. The new countries of Africa adopted a variety of forms of government, some emulating their former colonial structures, others embracing socialism, and many falling into states of tribal totalitarianism.

The Left in Africa

Indeed, the ideology behind the independence movements varied considerably. Within Angola, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique, the inspiration was radically communist and imported into the continent. By contrast, in the conservative Kenya of Jomo Kenyatta and Daniel arap Moi, a more culturally linked nationalist ideology emerged after independence, around the Harrambee movement. This was an attempt ...

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