PERONISM IS AN ARGENTINE political movement and ideology named after Juan Peron. Peron was president of Argentina from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. He, along with Eva Peron, his wife, defined Peronism, one of the most important political movements in 20th-century Argentine history.

Peronism reflected and built upon the nationalist sentiment that surged in the 1930s and 1940s, particularly among the military. It opposed foreign economic control (in the 1930s, 50 percent of capital investments in Argentina were foreign-owned) and the landed oligarchy that had ruled the nation since the late 1800s. Peronism was against liberalism, both because of its association with the oligarchy and the British and, more importantly, because Peron believed liberal ideology was unable to defeat communism, which he strongly ...

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