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SPANIARD JOSE Antonio Primo de Rivera founded the fascistic Falange Española (Spanish Falange) in 1933. The Falange was pro-Catholic, anti-liberal, anti-communist, and nationalistic; its name is derived from the Macedonian unit of battle responsible for the destruction of democracy in Greece in the 4th century b.c.e. Primo de Rivera admired fascists Adolf Hitler in Germany and Benito Mussolini in Italy. Like them, he favored a strong state and opposed class struggle. As he wrote in 1933, “The State is founded on two principles—service to the united nation and the co-operation of classes.”

The Falange emerged following the resignation of General Miguel Primo de Rivera, Jose Antonio's aristocratic father, who had ruled Spain from 1923 to 1930. The monarchy, which had ruled Spain since the 1400s, fell ...

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