SEPARATISM REFERS to a political movement that obtains sovereignty and so splits a territory or group of people from another. Motives for establishing separatist movements include religious commitment, nationalism, and inadequate economic or political sway (for example, the northern Italian separatists who saw the progress of the industrial north being hindered by the lack of development in the more traditional south of the country).

Separatist movements, significantly, can be both peaceful and violent. Spain, for example, arguably has one of the most well known and violent of all contemporary separatist movements. Spain is a country of strong regional differences. Historically, regions have developed with their own customs, flags, cultures, and in some instances, languages. For example, in Catalonia civilians speak not only Spanish but also Catalan. ...

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