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POSTMODERNISM IS THE HISTORIC opposition to what is considered modern. In the discussion about postmodernity and postmodernism, reference is made to a rupture or critique of the political project of modernity (liberal democracy), its culture and science (Enlightenment), or its economic system (capitalism). In each of these terms, issues such as autonomy, freedom, and legitimization are at stake.

Postmodernism was initially found in the aesthetic debates on literature and architecture in the United States, France, and Italy. However, it was also applied to the fields of philosophy, sociology, economics, and politics. The idea of postmodernity was used by Arnold Toynbee in his book A Study of History to denote the last phase of Western culture, beginning around 1875. It then appeared in Latin America during the ...

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