IN THE LATE 17th century, English philosopher John Locke introduced the concept of “natural rights,” arguing that human beings had the right to life, liberty, and property ownership. Since these rights were given by the Creator, no government or individual could take them away. Proponents of animal rights believe that Locke's rights should be extended to nonhumans as well. Decidedly on the left of the political spectrum, they argue that all animals were created not for the use of humans but for themselves.

Advocates of animal welfare may accept the benefit that humans receive from animals, but they demand humane treatment of animals in all circumstances. Animal welfare advocates object strenuously to the practice of “intensive rearing” on factory farms where animals are too closely confined, ...

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