The Image or What Happened to the American Dream was published by Daniel J. Boorstin in 1962. The book diagnosed the formation and development of illusions held by contemporary Americans. What was central to the making of illusions was the notion of “pseudoevents.” A pseudo-event possessed four characteristics.

First, it was a nonspontaneous happening planned, planted, or incited by someone. Second, it was planted primarily for the immediate purpose of being reported or reproduced by the media. Third, its relation to the underlying reality of the situation was ambiguous. Finally, it was intended to be a self-fulfilling prophecy. Pseudo-events often overshadowed spontaneous events because they were more dramatic, were easier to disseminate and to make vivid, were more intelligible and more assuring, were more sociable, more ...

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