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Research from authors have defined hate speech as the use of words as weapons that terrorize, humiliate, degrade, abuse, threaten, and discriminate based on race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, or gender. After the efforts and rhetoric of the Nazi regime in World War II, nations like Germany and France began the push for hate speech regulations. Other Western democracies, such as the United Kingdom and Canada, followed suit. The United States, on the other hand, has continued to hold to the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution and Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which both guarantee freedom of expression. Thus, nearly all efforts to restrict hate speech in the United States, including speech codes on public university campuses, have ...

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