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Human adults readily make judgments about the thoughts, perceptions, desires, and intentions behind observable behavior. Imagine that you are at a party. You see Gill with an empty glass, look around, and then approach the drinks table. She picks up a bottle of red wine, makes a brief expression of disgust, pours herself a glass from a bottle of white, and smiles with anticipation. You might suppose that she wanted a drink, likes white wine, but initially mistook the bottle of red for a bottle of white. Such judgments are often derived from directly observable behavior, but allow deeper understanding of what someone is doing, and what they may do next. Theory of mind or mentalizing refers to this ability go beyond observed behavior and ...

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