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Prior to smelling (olfaction) or tasting (gustation) something, we usually see the item producing the smell or taste. This is particularly true when the item is food, which when put in our mouth stimulates taste receptors in the oral cavity and olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity (via what is called retronasal olfaction). It is also often true for items we smell in our external environment (e.g., flowers), which stimulate our olfactory receptors by chemicals inhaled through our nostrils (orthonasal olfaction). One of the most salient visual properties of an object we are also experiencing through one of our chemical senses (i.e., gustation or olfaction) is its color. Color can serve to predict olfactory or gustatory qualities to follow. For example, before drinking an orange-colored ...

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