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Dyslexia is marked by unusually slow reading development in children who are otherwise normally developing. Although most children learn to read with little conscious effort, children with dyslexia lag well behind their peers in acquiring this fundamental skill. These children fail to learn to read adequately despite normal hearing, cognitive, neurological, and emotional abilities. The disorder is not uncommon, with an estimated 5 to 15% of all children having significant difficulties in learning to read. Despite early reports, there is no sex link, with an equal preponderance in boys and girls. The term dyslexia is occasionally also used to refer to individuals with reading disturbances following stroke, although the more common term in that case is alexia, which is not discussed in this entry.

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