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In humans, the cortex is a large part of the brain that is so extensive that it covers most other parts. This cortex receives inputs over brainstem and thalamic relays from the sensory receptors in the eyes, skin, ears, and other parts of the body. This information is further processed to create a model of the external world that usefully directs our behavior via the outputs of a number of motor and motor-related cortical areas. Although cortical size and organization vary greatly across the various mammalian species, all have primary sensory areas, the subdivisions of the cortex at the start of the cortical processing systems that relay to variable numbers of additional sensory, multi-sensory, evaluative, motivating, motor, and memory related cortical areas and subcortical structures. ...

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