• Entry
  • Reader's guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject index

In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published its first official listing of mental diseases. Titled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), it was conceived as a way to establish a common diagnostic language and to increase inter-clinician reliability, which ranged from just over 20% to about 42%, depending on the study. Largely ignored when it first appeared, the initial DSM was a spiral-bound notebook with cursory descriptions of about 100 disorders, and it was sold primarily to mental institutions for a mere $3.50. The third edition, the DSM-III in 1980, and more recent updates–the DSM-III-R in 1987, DSM-IV in 1994, and DSM-IV-TR in 2000–have expanded to 900 pages in length and sold hundreds of thousands of copies at over $80 ...

    • Loading...
    locked icon

    Sign in to access this content

    Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

    • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
    • Read modern, diverse business cases
    • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles