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Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale

The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is designed to study general patterns of the incidence and prevalence of depression among adults. Lenore S. Radloff published the original report on its development and suitability for use in the general population. The CES-D is frequently used to measure depressed mood and general psychological distress in research settings, and it is popular for screening for clinical levels of depression (such as major depressive disorder) in adult community populations where low levels of incidence are expected. It has been translated into several languages and used in cross-cultural samples. The CES-D was designed to be a self-report measure assessing current symptom levels of depression in the general population. Independently developed short versions with a reported predictive validity comparable ...

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