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Anti-Semitism refers to hostility toward Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group that is manifested on an individual, institutional, or societal level. This definition highlights one of the major difficulties of defining anti-Semitism accurately–that is, Jews often confound established notions of ethnic, racial, and religious identity. Unfortunately, many people see Judaism only as a religion, and others see Jews as Caucasian; the latter designation is particularly problematic for Jews of color. These categorizations are overly simplistic and do not fully describe the diversity of Jews. For example, there are Jewish ethnic differences (i.e., Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Mizrachim) and different Jewish movements (i.e., Orthodox, Hasidic, Reform, Conservative, Reconstructionist, and Renewal). Hence, anti-Semitism is more than simple religious bias. It is important to note that many ...

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