White privilege refers the largely unacknowledged and unearned advantages conferred on Caucasian people in the United States at the expense of people of color. White privilege benefits are socially, politically, and economically embedded at the systemic level and internalized at the psychological and interpersonal levels, particularly by Caucasian people (i.e., members of the dominant group). Therefore, Caucasians are resistant to efforts to recognize and ameliorate the causes and effects of the racial hierarchy that maintains these benefits.

At the systemic level, the advantages that Caucasian individuals enjoy include smaller class sizes in the elementary and secondary schools they attend, access to computer technology at home and at school, graduation from four-year colleges and universities, higher salaries, continued employment during economic downturns, access to home ownership and ...

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