Self-esteem has been discussed in the psychology literature for more than half a century. It is associated with general psychological well-being, depression, hopelessness, anxiety, social isolation, and motivation. In addition, racial and ethnic differences with respect to self-esteem have been documented.

Self-Esteem Defined

According to the most widely cited definition, proposed by Morris Rosenberg in 1965, self-esteem is an individual's overall appraisal of himself or herself. This appraisal is made by examining the totality of the individual and includes reflections on identity (who one is); life products (what one does); possessions (what one has); appearance (what one looks like); and associations and attachments (to whom one is connected). Within each characteristic, a number of tangible (e.g., physical appearance, financial assets) and intangible (e.g., reputation, power) qualities influence ...

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