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Racial Identity Models

A number of racial identity models have been proposed to explain how people develop racial identity. These models were originally developed to understand experiences of African Americans and then expanded to other racial groups in the United States. Many of them conceptualize racial identity development as a series of stages in which individuals change their attitudes and internalized images of their own racial group and other groups. Racial identity models are often used to aid counseling and research. Following are some of the major racial identity models.

Cross's Nigrescence Model

This is a five-stage racial identity model for African Americans that describes a process of transformation from a negative attitude toward one's own race to a positive one, through racial identity exploration. This model is a basis ...

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