Personality disorders are a class of psychiatric disorder characterized by enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, which cause impairment or distress, are pervasive across contexts, and deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. This class of disorder was thought to differ from clinical syndromes (i.e., mood, anxiety, or psychotic disorders), which tend to be more episodic in nature and purportedly are more affected by biological versus psychosocial factors. The two primary domains of personality disorders are (1) interpersonal problems and (2) difficulties with identity and therefore are arguably more affected by sociocultural factors than are many other forms of psychopathology. Although biological factors certainly shape both personality and personality pathology, culture and other social factors are likely equally, if not more, important in this ...

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