In Classic of Filial Piety, Confucius (551–479 BCE) prescribed proper behavior in family relationships, such as the behavior of filial sons toward their parents in daily life, during sickness, and in the afterlife through ancestor worship. The Chinese ideograph xiao is composed of two characters; lao (“old”) is positioned on top of the character zi (“son”), indicating that the older generation should be supported by the younger one. The fundamental instructions for practicing filial piety are found in the Chu Li (summary of the rules of filial piety) from the Li Chi (Book of Rites). Family elders and parents have a duty to instruct and correct their children to achieve proper values, behavior, and attitudes. Sons were encouraged to be obedient, reverent, and compliant in ...

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