The term transnationalism refers to the circulation of goods and ideas between two or more countries that create new identities, communities, and cultures distinct from both sending countries and receiving countries. In many cases, transnational migration results in the geographical separation of family members for lengthy periods of time. Transnational-ism redefines motherhood to include mother-child relations in one transnational community, or more commonly, mother-child kinship relations stretched across national, political, and cultural boundaries.

Beginnings in Transnational Labor

The phenomenon of transnationalism stems from the dramatic increase in transnational labor. Advanced globalization in agricultural and industrial production systems results in male and female workers having to move across borders in search for better labor markets.

While transnational labor migration includes some managerial, technology, and business elites, most labor migrants ...

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