Pennsylvania is the 12th largest state in the United States, with a population of 12.5 million in 2008, of which about 1.4 million were African American and about half a million Hispanic. In 2006, there were 149,090 births in Pennsylvania, including 57,065 to unmarried women, for a birth rate of 12 per 1,000 population and a fertility rate of 60.6 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years.

Overall, Pennsylvania ranks about average among U.S. states on most economic indicators: unemployment in 2007 was 4.4 percent, ranking 25th; per capita income was $38,788, ranking 19th; median household income was $48,576, ranking 25th; and the poverty rate was 11.6 percent, ranking 32nd.

The state is home to several well-known research hospitals and medical schools, and is well supplied with physicians ...

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