Mongolia is famous as the home of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan, who conquered a huge Eurasian empire in the 13th century. His mother, Ho'elun, is traditionally credited with teaching him the skill of political survival, and along with his wife, Borte, was one of his most trusted advisers. The Mongol empire diminished in size after Khan's death, and came under Chinese rule in the 17th century; in 1921, Mongolia became an independent country.

The population in 2009 is estimated at just under 3 million, with a median age of 25.3 years and 28.1 percent of the population aged 14 years or younger. The population growth rate is 1.5 percent, with 21.1 births per 100 and a total fertility rate (an estimate of the number of children born ...

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