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Estonia

  • By: Sarah E. Boslaugh
  • In: Encyclopedia of Motherhood
  • Edited by: Andrea O'Reilly
  • Subject:Sociology of Gender, Parenting, Maternal Health

Estonia is a former Soviet Republic that gained independence in 1991 and joined the European Union in 2004. It is a parliamentary democracy with a population of about 1.3 million, of whom 14.9 percent are age 14 or younger and 17.6 percent age 65 and older. The population growth rate is negative (minus 0.632 percent), with 10.28 births per 1,000 population, 13.4 deaths per 1,000, and a net migration rate of minus 3.26 per 1,000. The total fertility rate (an estimation of the average number of children per woman) is 1.42. Life expectancy at birth is 67.4 years for men and 78.5 years for women. The population is about two-thirds Estonian and one-quarter Russian, with the remainder mostly coming from other former Soviet republics. It ...

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