The Republic of Cuba has the lowest fertility and highest rate of contraceptive use in Latin America. Social programs provide universal health care and access to daycare. Divorce rates are among the world's highest and consensual unions are common. Women have primary responsibility for childcare and housework despite high labor force participation. Spanish colonialism and Catholicism influence traditional gender roles. Educational attainment is high. Social reforms guarantee women's right to education, work, paid maternity leave, childcare, and abortion, and marriage is an equitable partnership under the Family Code.

Cuba's rate of 1.4 children per mother is comparable to many advanced nations. Low fertility is attributable to high rates of labor force participation and educational attainment, free access to birth control, and legalized abortion. The government provides ...

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