The concept of probability was introduced as a way of representing our uncertainty about the world. Mathematically, a probability distribution is a mapping from the values of a variable to non-negative real numbers. Semantically, a probability is the chance or likelihood that an event occurs, currently or in the future.

Variables and Their Values

A variable is a mathematical object that takes on values from a certain set, called its domain. For instance, the domain of the variable Sex can be {male, female}. Each variable represents a property of the real world.

Values of a Variable

By definition, the values that a variable can take must be both exclusive and exhaustive. Exclusive means that two values cannot be true simultaneously. Exhaustive means that the values must cover all possible ...

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