Pain is a universal experience. How pain is experienced and the clinical management that may be employed in its diagnosis and treatment are complex and multidimensional. When a patient presents with pain, the decision making of the clinician may be simple or complex, intuitive or analytical and is susceptible to multiple errors in assessment, investigation, and treatment. In this, pain is no different from any other area of medicine. Never theless, there are unique aspects of pain and its management that raise challenges to the quality of clinical decision making. Multiple medical, sociocultural, and religious values exist in all aspects of pain and its management. The heuristics of pain management are complex, and the possible cognitive dispositions to respond are ever present. Good clinical management ...

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