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Basic Common Statistical Tests: Chi-Square Test, t Test, Nonparametric Test

A statistical test provides a mechanism for making quantitative decisions about a process or processes. The intent is to determine whether there is enough evidence to “reject” a conjecture or hypothesis about the process. The conjecture is called the null hypothesis. In medical research, appropriate use of a test, correctly interpreting p values, and drawing valid conclusions may help to clarify the confusion between statistical and clinical significance and make judicious decisions. The rest of this entry is organized as follows: Beginning with the chi-square test, the most applicable test for categorical data, this entry introduces t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quantitative outcomes, ending with the introduction of nonparametric tests.

Chi-Square Test

Chi-square test is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data ...

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