Ideals of professionalism, like those of work more generally, have often been articulated in conjunction with notions of manliness, at least since what are commonly called “the professions” (law, medicine, and the ministry) emerged in the mid–eighteenth century. Large numbers of American men have often rooted their masculine identities in specialized training, technical expertise, and professional credentials. While the impersonal and bureaucratic codes that govern conduct and advancement in the professions constitute a departure from earlier definitions of masculinity grounded in autonomy and manual labor, the characteristics associated with professional endeavors—social indifference; intellectual power; adherence to abstract, impersonal rules; mastery of expert knowledge; an emphasis on rational behavior and thought; and a premium on advancement and achievement— have been gendered as masculine in American culture. ...

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