The Nation of Islam

Arising amidst the segregation, racial violence, and economic disparity of the early twentieth century, the Nation of Islam (NOI) was embraced by black Americans yearning for racial pride. By proposing a model of masculinity founded upon a vigilant defense of African-American society and culture, a quest for financial independence, and a reclaiming of self-mediated identity, the NOI offered a striking alternative to extant white paradigms that devalued black men's intellects and abilities and African-American models that emphasized racial assimilation. Since that time, this movement has continued to promote a style of masculinity and a social agenda welcomed by many African Americans, particularly marginalized ones.

In the 1910s, a surge of black nationalism swept the United States. Groups such as Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association sought ...

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