The regulation of body temperature, or thermoregulation, is the sum of physiological responses that keeps body temperature close to the temperature set point at the brain (∼36.8±C) and within physiological range (∼36.5±C to ∼40±C). Human body temperature is regulated at the shell (skin) and core (internal) levels. The shell temperature is influenced by the external environment, but the core temperature (Tc) is regulated within a narrow range of about 4±C by the brain. Human behavior (e.g., clothing and air-conditioning) allows skin temperature to contribute to the regulation of Tc. Thermoregulation is different from heat tolerance, which is the ability to tolerate a high body temperature without physiological impairment (Figure 1). The mechanisms of thermoregulation and heat tolerance are closely intertwined with exercise performance.

Physical exercise induces ...

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