Obesity, defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2, is a chronic disease with major health and economic implications. More than 30% of the American population are obese, making it the leading nutritional disorder in U.S. society. Obesity rates among men, women, and children have skyrocketed in the United States over the past 2 decades. This trend has escalated to epidemic proportions, with a disproportionate increase in persons with super-obesity, defined as those with a BMI ≥50 kg/m2. Obesity is recognized as a major cause of excessive morbidity and mortality in the 21st century, while weight loss is associated with numerous favorable metabolic alignments. Practically speaking, traditional treatment options for obesity are generally ineffective and fraught with high rates of failure and weight regain.

In 1991, the National ...

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