Over the past decade, there has been an increasing focus on the role of persistent low-grade inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Further, inflammation has been suggested to be a key factor in insulin resistance and neurodegeneration.

Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is reflected in increased systemic levels of some cytokines, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), and several reports investigating various markers of inflammation have confirmed an association between low-grade systemic inflammation on the one hand and several chronic diseases on the other.

Infiltration of immune cells into white adipose tissue, and subsequently local inflammation in fat tissue, is correlated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Similarly, activated immune cells and inflammation have an important role in cardiovascular diseases. It has furthermore been ...

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